A look at the characteristics of solid-fuel technology and how it can help North Korea improve its missile systems.
North Korea says it has successfully tested a new solid-fuel intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), its first known use of the propellant in a longer-range projectile.
But what exactly is a solid-fuel missile and why does it matter to have one?
What is solid-fuel technology?
Solid propellant is a mixture of fuel and oxidiser. Metallic powders such as aluminum often serve as the fuel, and ammonium perchlorate, which is the salt of perchloric acid and ammonia, is the most common oxidiser.
The fuel and oxidiser are bound together by a hard rubbery material and packed into a metal casing.
When the solid propellant burns, oxygen from the ammonium perchlorate combines with aluminum to generate enormous amounts of energy and temperatures of more than 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit (2,760 degrees Celsius), creating thrust and lifting the missile from the launch pad.
What is the advantage of this technology?
Solid fuel is dense and burns quite quickly, generating thrust over a short time. Separately, it can remain in storage for an extended period without degrading or breaking down – a common issue with liquid fuel.
Vann Van Diepen, a former US government weapons expert who now works with the Washington-based North Korea monitoring project, 38 North, said solid-fuel missiles are easier and safer to operate. They also require less logistical support, making them harder to detect and more survivable than liquid-fuel weapons.
According to Joseph Dempsey, a research associate at the International Institute for Strategic Studies, one of the key advantages is that solid-fueled missiles can be “fuelled from the point of manufacture”.
“They, therefore, allow operators to maintain a high state of readiness and the potential to launch within minutes, depending on basis,” Dempsey wrote in an analysis earlier this year.
In contrast, a liquid-fueled ICBM would need to undergo a fueling process before launch, said Dempsey. That could take hours, giving an adversary time to identify, react and neutralize it before its launch.
Who has this technology?
Solid fuel dates back to fireworks developed by the Chinese centuries ago, but made dramatic progress in the mid-20th century when the United States developed more powerful propellant.
The Soviet Union fielded its first solid-fuel ICBM, the RT-2, in the early 1970s, followed by France’s development of its S3, also known as SSBS, a